1990-1997 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engines
+ 3.2. Diesel engines
+ 3.3. Removal and partition of engines
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Systems of start, ignition
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Suspension brackets, steering
- 12. Body
12.2. Maintenance and repair
12.3. Front bumper
12.4. Rear bumper
+ 12.6. Rope of opening of a cowl
12.7. Cowl lock
12.9. Internal panel of furnish of a door
12.10. Frame of a window of a door
12.11. Handle of a door and lock elements
12.12. Glass and window regulator
12.13. Trunk lid
12.14. Elements of the lock of a trunk lid
12.15. Back door
12.16. Elements of the lock of a back door
12.17. Elements of the central lock
+ 12.18. Elements of electric window regulators
12.19. Rear-view mirrors and related elements
12.20. Front and back glass
12.21. Top hatch
12.22. External elements of furnish of a body
12.24. Mechanism of a tension of forward seat belts
12.25. Elements of seat belts
12.26. Panels of furnish of salon
12.27. Central console
+ 13. Electric equipment
+ 14. Good advice
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The condition in which there is a body of your car, is very important, because its cost depends on it in big degree at resale. It is much more difficult to repair the started or damaged body, than mechanical parts. The hidden cavities of a body, such as niches of wheels, a frame and a motor compartment are also important not less in spite of the fact that they do not demand frequent attention, as other parts of a body.
Once a year, or each 20 000 km, the body bottom by means of steam is very useful to clear. All traces of dirt and oil will be removed, and after this area it will be possible to check on existence of the rust, the damaged brake highways, the worn-out electric wires, the damaged ropes and so on. At the end of this work it is necessary to grease components of a forward suspension bracket.
At the same time clear the engine and a motor compartment by means of a paroochistitel or the adaptation for greasing removal.
The special attention is necessary for turning on niches of wheels as the substrate can exfoliate, both stones and the dirt, thrown out by wheels, can damage paint and allow to appear to a rust. If you found a rust, smooth out the damaged surface to the metal and put on it anticorrosive paint.
It is necessary to wash a body, at least, once a week. Carefully wet the car to soften dirt, and then wash away it by means of a soft sponge and a large amount of soap water. If carefully not to wash away dirt, it can erase paint.
Spots of tar or bitumen are necessary for clearing by means of a fabric moistened in solvent.
At least, each six months polish a body and the chromeplated details. If you use a cleaner for the chromeplated parts to remove a rust from details with an electrodeposit, remember that the cleaner also deletes honor of chrome so use it carefully.
Never clear vinyl furnish with the help detergents, kaustichesky soap or cleaners on the basis of kerosene. Simple soap, and water work simply perfectly, and a soft brush it is possible to remove inveterate dirt easily. Wash vinyl furnish also often, as well as all car.
After cleaning application of high-quality protective equipment for rubber and vinyl surfaces will help to avoid oxidation and emergence of cracks. The protective tool can also is put on a sealant of glasses, vacuum highways and rubber hoses which often fail as a result of chemical destruction, and also on tires.
Upholstery and rugs – leaving
Each three months remove rugs and clear the car inside (if it is necessary, do it more often). The vacuum cleaner clear an upholstery and rugs to remove the remained dirt and a dust.
The leather upholstery demands special attention. It is necessary to delete spots with warm water and very soft soap solution. Use pure rags to remove soap, and then again wipe an upholstery a dry rag. Never use alcohol, gasoline, liquid for removal of a varnish or a thinner for cleaning of a leather upholstery.
After cleaning regularly process a leather upholstery special wax. Never use automobile wax for polishing of a leather upholstery.
Where the interior of the car is treated to action of sunshine, close leather seats sheets if the car is left on the sun during any time.
Repair of small scratches
If scratch superficial also does not mention body metal, repair is very simple. Slightly rub the scratched surface with thin polishing structure to remove friable paint and wax. Wash out a surface pure water.
Put paint for a podkrashivaniye on scratch by means of a small brush. Continue to put thin paint coats until paint completely will not fill scratch. Let's to new paint dry up, at least, within two weeks, and then mix it with surrounding paint, заполировав the painted area by means of thin polishing structure. And, at last, put the top layer of wax on the scratched surface.
If scratch got through paint and damaged body metal, having caused emergence of a rust, it is necessary to apply other procedure of repair. Remove a rust from the scratch basis by means of a pocket knife, and then put anticorrosive paint to prevent emergence of a rust in the future. Having used a rubber or nylon applikator, cover the scratched area with a glaze (a glaze – a translucent paint layer). Before the glaze in scratch will harden, place a piece of a smooth cotton fabric round a finger-tip. Ship a fabric in a thinner, and then quickly carry out it round a scratch surface. It will help you will be convinced that a glaze surface the slightly hollow. Now it is possible to paint over scratch.
Repair of dents
During carrying out repair of dents the first that it is necessary to make, it to correct a dent that the damaged place was as is possible closer to an initial form. There is no sense to try to restore completely an initial form as metal in the damaged place is stretched, and it cannot be restored to an initial contour. It is better to level a dent so that its level was approximately on 3 mm below level of surrounding metal.
In case the dent very small, in general is not present sense it to level.
If the dent is in such part of a body which has a double layer, or something else does impossible access from within, it is necessary to apply other procedure. Drill some small openings in metal in the damaged surface, mainly in the deepest parts. Screw in long, being self-cut screws in openings so that they entered into strong gearing with metal. Now it is possible to correct a dent, having pulled for acting heads of screws by means of flat-nose pliers.
The following stage of repair this removal of paint from the damaged surface and from surrounding metal approximately on 2,5 see. It becomes by means of a wire brush or a disk for the polishing, put on a drill, however with not smaller efficiency it can be made manually by means of an emery paper. To finish preparations for a shpatlevka, smooth out a screw-driver or a file a surface of the bared metal, or drill small openings in the damaged area. It will provide good coupling of metal and a glaze.
Repair of openings from a rust or cracks
Remove all paint from the damaged surface and from surrounding metal in radius about 2,5 cm, having used an emery paper or the wire brush, put on a drill. If they are inaccessible, this work can be made manually by means of several sheets of an emery paper.
Having peeled the paint, you can define extent of corrosion and solve, whether replace the whole panel or if it is possible, to repair the damaged surface. New panels of a body are not too expensive, as many people think, and very often to establish the new panel much quicker, than to repair the big surface damaged by a rust.
Remove all parts of decorative furnish from the damaged area, except for what operate as a directing initial form of the damaged body of the car, such as the headlight case, and so on. Having used scissors on metal or a nozhovochny cloth, remove all damaged metal, and also any other metal on which there are rust traces. A hammer bend opening edges inside to create small dredging for a filling material.
Wire brush smooth out the damaged surface to remove a poroshkoobrazny rust from a metal surface. If there is an access to a back part of a rusty surface, cover it with anticorrosive paint.
Before final seal закупорьте in any way opening. It can be made by means of a tin, priklepanny or screwed in in an opening, or establish in an opening a wire grid.
When the opening will be corked, the damaged area can be filled and painted over.
Filling and painting
Now well large number of fillers for body repair, however, frankly speaking, a set of details for body repair in which there is a filling paste, and a tube of a hardener of polymers best of all is suitable for carrying out repair work. The wide flexible plastic or nylon applikator will be necessary for alignment of a surface of a shpatlevka for you. Mix a small amount of a mix of a shpatlevka on a pure wooden plate or a piece of cardboard (economically spending a hardener). Follow instructions of producers on packing, differently the shpatlevka will harden incorrectly.
Using an applikator, put filling paste on the prepared surface. Carry out an applikator on a shpatlevka surface to reach a desirable contour and to balance a shpatlevka surface. When initial level and a contour will be reached, stop work with paste. If you continue, paste will stick to an applikator. Continue to put thin layers of paste with 20-minute intervals while level of a shpatlevka will precisely not correspond to level of surrounding metal.
When the shpatlevka will harden, it is possible to remove its surplus by means of a file. Further it is necessary to use an emery paper, gradually increasing its granularity, having begun with paper with an indicator of granularity of 180 units and having finished waterproof paper with an indicator of granularity of 600 units. Always reel up an emery paper on rubber or wooden whetstone, differently a surface of a shpatlevka will not be completely flat. During polishing of a surface of a shpatlevka with an indicator of granularity of 600 units it is necessary to moisten a waterproof emery paper periodically in water. It will help to reach very smooth surface.
Now the ring of naked metal which, in turn, should be surrounded with the good intact paint should surround area of repair. Wash out area of repair by water until all dust which has remained after polishing, will not be removed.
On all smoothed-out surface apply a thin film a soil covering. It will help to find all defects on a shpatlevka surface. Correct the found defects by means of a fresh shpatlevka or a lassirovka and once again smooth out a surface an emery paper. Repeat procedure of drawing of a first coat and a shpatlevka until you will not be satisfied with quality of a surface of a shpatlevka and a paint edge. Wash out a surface pure water and let's to it dry completely.
Now the area of repair is ready to painting. Coloring by dispersion is necessary for carrying out at warm, dry, windless weather when in air there will be no dust. These conditions can be reached, if you have an access to a big production room. However if you have to work in the open air, to choose day of painting it is necessary very carefully. If you work indoors, sprinkle water a floor. It will help you to beat a dust which differently can rise in air. If the area of repair is on one panel of a body, close all surrounding panels. It will help you to minimize small discrepancy in color paints. Decorative details of furnish, such as and so on, it is also necessary to disguise or remove chromic slips, door handles. For masking use a sticky tape and several layers of paper.
Before dispersion carefully взболтайте paint, and then be trained to spray it to learn to do it correctly. Put a thick layer of a first coat on a repaired surface. It is better to put some thin layers, than one thick. By means of an emery paper with granularity of 600 units smooth out a first coat surface until it does not become very smooth. During carrying out this operation the processed surface should be moistened with water carefully. The emery paper is also necessary for lowering periodically in water. Let's to a first coat dry before drawing of additional layers.
Spray paint on the top layer, increasing its thickness by drawing of several layers. Start to spray paint from the center of repaired area, and then, using roundabouts, process all repaired surface, and also about 5 cm of surrounding paint. Remove all masking material in 10-15 minutes after drawing of the last paint coat. Let's to new paint dry, at least, two weeks, and then by means of very thin grinding structure make imperceptible transition from new paint to initial. In completion of work put a wax layer.
Body repair – considerable damages
Considerable damages of a body are necessary for repairing at service stations on which there is an equipment for body repair.
If extensive damages take place, it is necessary to check body geometry. They also can affect characteristics of driving or lead to that other components will quicker wear out.
Because all main components of a body (a cowl, wings, etc.) represent separate elements which it is possible to replace, best of all to bring their replacement, instead of repair. Sometimes demanded details can be found in shops on sale of second-hand spare parts that is much cheaper, than purchase of the new.
Loops and locks – maintenance and repair
Some drops of low-viscous oil or greasing for locks are necessary to put on loops and latches on doors, a cowl and a luggage carrier each 5000 km, or each three months. It is also necessary to cover latches of door locks with a thin layer of konsistentny greasing to reduce wear and to provide free movement. Grease locks of doors and a cowl with graphite greasing.
Windscreen and motionless glasses – replacement
Replacement of a windscreen and motionless glasses demands use special быстроотверждающегося glue or condensing structure and some specialized adaptations. These operations are recommended to be carried out at car repair shops.