1990-1997 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engines
+ 3.2. Diesel engines
+ 3.3. Removal and partition of engines
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Systems of start, ignition
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Suspension brackets, steering
+ 12. Body
+ 13. Electric equipment
- 14. Good advice
14.1.1. Changed numbers
14.1.2. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
14.2. Durability of the car
14.3. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.4. Preparation of the car for winter
14.5. It is not got – good advice
14.6. From change of places "composed" changes nothing?
14.7. Visit to car-care center
- 14.8. Engine
14.8.2. Analysis of a dymnost of an exhaust
14.8.3. "Eats" much, but silently goes
14.8.4. A gear belt for a drive of the mechanism of a gazoraspredeleniye
14.8.5. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
+ 14.8.8. Bearings
+ 14.8.9. To owners of the car with the diesel engine
14.8.10. To owners of the car with the injector engine
+ 14.9. Conditioner
+ 14.11. Rub in one – or how to save the catalyst
+ 14.12. Accumulator
14.15. "Machine gun"
+ 14.16. Brake system
+ 14.17. Wheels and tires
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It is possible to reanimate any "tired" car. But technical difficulties are thus great. Without the spare parts, any stanochny park, welding and other technological support here not to manage. The main thing – factory instructions on repair (they are available now) speak nothing about possible alternative decisions, especially about choice problems among details, materials and tools which are in the today's domestic market. Such is a circle of questions which both the loner enthusiast, and mechanics of "small service" lack information. We also want in process of possibilities to fill it.
Sooner or later any engine becomes a source of troubles: глохнет in a way, it does not want to be started in the mornings, pulls worse, "eats" superfluous fuel and oil. It is quite probable that the reason of his whimsical behavior is plain: to clean the carburetor enough, to adjust ignition and to replace maslosjemny caps that everything entered into norm. But happens that traditional approaches do not help it, and at measurements of a compression it becomes clear that in one or several cylinders it is lower admissible, – and the question becomes serious.
Then first of all specify nature of malfunction: wear of tsilindro-piston group, a podgoraniye of facets of valves or wear of cores and directing plugs. The equipment of diagnosing is rather simple and described in all grants on repair of engines.
Then decide on repair. Here only it is necessary to take itself for a rule: from any miracle liquids to be far away. The effect in principle is possible, but the usual result – superfluous expenses and efforts is reached seldom. It is better to be guided by high-grade repair procedure at once.
To find a workshop where treat engines, today it is not so difficult, and not only in the large cities. But here is how there work, what its quality is organized? Life shows that at all importance of experience and qualification of employees good results without the special equipment and equipment are unattainable, and in this plan the disorder of technical armament of our stations and mechanics is alas great. And if told concerned generally the motorist-ekspluatatsionnika above, the further statement is addressed not so much to it, how many to the mechanic, after all it will be a question of technology.
In cases when results of diagnostic check indicate malfunction of the klapanny mechanism, the head of the block should be removed. The first action after dismantle, dismantling and the general survey – an assessment of gaps between cores of valves and their directing plugs. If they are higher than maximum permissible values, valves replace with the new. But when this vague measure is insufficient, it is necessary to replace and plugs too.
For a small workshop such operation presents known difficulties: pig-iron plugs press in the aluminum case with a tightness. Thus to avoid microcracks and smyatiya, it is necessary to cool plugs previously in liquid nitrogen (temperature – 196 ° C), and the case to warm up to 160–170 ° With (above there can be harmful consequences). All this is quite difficult, labor-consuming and is often simply non-reproducible in semi-handicraft conditions. Therefore in rare workshops do not deviate the ordered conditions that directly pours out in loss of quality of landing and distortion of geometry of knot. It then correct, processing "in a place" saddles of valves a vertical drill or a sharoshka, and valves long and tiresomely grind in.
But today there is also other technique, extremely profitable both on labor input, and on an investment of means which thus guarantees high-quality results. It is reached by use of the original and almost unknown tool in our practice of the American company "Nyyuey" (Neway).
With its help restoration of worn-out directing plugs is made on a place, without a vypressovka! Special knifes rollers cause plastic deformation of metal, compensating wear of an internal surface of the plug, at the same time forming in it a spiral fillet which improves conditions of greasing of a core of the valve, and also serves as a peculiar labirintny consolidation, oblegachayushchy a task to maslosjemny caps.
Five knifes and set of development enter into a set for finishing processing of the plug. It is characteristic that all operations with the Nyyuey tool are conducted manually and are not connected with power supply or other energy from the outside.
Now about saddles of valves. At traditional methods of their processing directing sharoshka or a vertical drill freely rotates in the valve plug. Mills of "Nyyuey" have a motionless axis which is densely fixed already in the restored plug by being self-established broad tsangovy "pilot". The mill is put on an axis with a precision gap of 0,5 microns that provides the minimum admission of processing. Mills of "Nyyuey" at the expense of unique sharpening and a form of cutting edges form a special microrelief of the comb type on a surface of a saddle of the valve: extra earnings of the valve and a saddle occurs quickly and effectively, and need for grinding in disappears. Their productivity is high: any facet on a saddle of the valve turns out for 3–4 turns of the tool.
The last stage – restoration of working facets of valves. For this operation the Nyyuey firm offers the special Gizmatik-2 tool. The valve motionlessly fix in the special adaptation which, in turn, establish in a metalwork vice. Enough several rotations of a mill (axial giving обеспечивется the microlift) to receive an ideal concentric surface of the valve. Let's notice that on its working surface, as well as when processing saddle, the special microrelief also is formed.
Here, actually, and all. It is necessary to wash out and grease only all details, and it is possible to collect a head.
And grinding in? Let's remind once again: at work as the Nyyuey tool in this tiresome, long and tiresome operation there is no need. After pair processing "valve saddle" interface of both details occurs on very narrow corbel, practically on the line.
It is reached small (to one degree) by a divergence of corners of processing of working surfaces of a saddle and the valve (between them the so-called interferential corner is formed). In the first seconds of operation of the engine the area of interface increases for the account a smyatiya of superficial ledges of the created microrelief on facets, and then there is a necessary 100 percent consolidation.
At cost of a set of equipment about 400 dollars (depending on a complete set) "Nyyuey" can pay off in the first month of work, and at repair of engines of foreign cars to bring in the appreciable income.