1990-1997 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engines
+ 3.2. Diesel engines
+ 3.3. Removal and partition of engines
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Systems of start, ignition
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Suspension brackets, steering
+ 12. Body
+ 13. Electric equipment
- 14. Good advice
14.1.1. Changed numbers
14.1.2. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
14.2. Durability of the car
14.3. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.4. Preparation of the car for winter
14.5. It is not got – good advice
14.6. From change of places "composed" changes nothing?
14.7. Visit to car-care center
+ 14.8. Engine
+ 14.9. Conditioner
+ 14.11. Rub in one – or how to save the catalyst
+ 14.12. Accumulator
14.15. "Machine gun"
+ 14.16. Brake system
+ 14.17. Wheels and tires
Your hardware should be faultless – after all time which you have, there is same money which, we hope, at you too is. Do not lose neither that, nor another. If goodness knows where gone tie or burned by the iron брючина can become the reason of failure of a business meeting what then to speak about the car which does not want to be got for an hour before the appointed negotiations.
... Early in the morning, just shaved and full of great plans (the child – in school, the wife – in a hairdressing salon, and itself – to forge labor kopek), you jump in the car, "a key on start" and... That for the devil... Once more. Still... Nervous manipulations with a key and pedals of success do not bring. Day is spoiled from the very beginning. Plans and mood – are up the spout.
Calm down. It is not necessary to rush in an English suit under a cowl and, smearing a tie oil грязищу, to try to make the diagnosis. In 5 minutes, most likely, do not cure. Take other car, and treatment of the fallen ill friend leave till the evening. And better charge it to doctors with good reputation, especially, if you have expensive car, and you not special. So will be cheaper. Well and if your friend to you well a sign and you consider yourselves as the healer – well, try if not laziness to be soiled or an exit of another is not present.
If the starter does not twist at all and at all does not click the traction relay at ignition inclusion, it or is faulty (it is possible to close a cowl and to follow the council given above: "Take other car..." ), or trouble with the accumulator – it was disconnected or sat down. Only in rare models the power-supply circuit of a starter can be protected by a safety lock – ampere so on 300 – it simply to find, especially, if in advance the nobility where it is. If the accumulator is guilty, thus also all electric equipment, as a rule, does not work. The elementary and most mild case – flied or one of plugs, but the accumulator as it should be became soiled. Tighten fastenings of plugs on it and on a starter (if is). If it becomes clear that the accumulator completely sat down (forgot to switch off for night of a headlight), it is possible to leave nevertheless. But with assistance. Here, as they say, options are possible. It is possible to try to be got from a push, from a hill or from a tow. Do not try to bypass reefs: the car with an automatic box or electronic injection of fuel (if there an electric gasoline pump) will not manage to be got these ways. It is necessary to get a light from the neighbor. However, at some cars it can lead to computer damages (read the instruction to the car). If a starter twist, but inertly (business occurs in the summer, in the winter it is a subject of separate conversation), most likely, the accumulator is almost absolutely discharged. It will be visible on weak light of headlights or a sickly signal. The above-stated options of assistance in this case come into effect.
If the starter twists vigorously, and the engine does not react to attempts it to get, safely exclude from further reflections everything connected with the accumulator. Expostulate on system of ignition or supply of fuel, will not be mistaken. At statement of the diagnosis and treatment of each of them the system approach is required. It is better to begin with ignition – there malfunctions happen more often. Especially in crude weather.
So, it is necessary to look for a spark. Your car can be equipped with classical (elementary) contact system of the ignition, quite difficult electronic contactless or any combined option. In any case the system consists of three parts. Part one – low-voltage (breaker contacts in classical system or the special sensor in electronic, plus a box with the electronic stuffing, forming a spark). A part second – the raising transformer called in the world by the coil of ignition. A part third – high-voltage (the mechanical or electronic distributor and wires on which the high-tension current is brought to candles). And it is natural, candles. Check of all this economy should be carried out on stages and it is better to begin with the end.
Stage first. High-voltage part of system. Check, whether there is a spark on the central wire – is what connects the coil to the distributor. The tip of a wire needs to be taken out from a distributor cover, to approach to any detail having good contact to mass of the car (it is painted or not, has no value), and to fix so that between a tip and the chosen detail there was a gap of 5-7 mm.
If ignition at your car electronic to fix a wire it is necessary especially reliably – if falls to weight, electronics will instantly die. For the same reason it is impossible to strike a wire on the case. A hand to hold it too we do not advise, at all the – will fine strike with a current.
Stage second. Turn the engine a starter. Thus look that occurs on a wire tip. Two options are possible. More favorable – the spark is. Powerful, accompanied by loud click. It considerably narrows a field of further searches.
First of all it is necessary to uncover the distributor. Under it it can appear damp and untidily. On such "conductor" the spark willingly slips anywhere, only not there where it is necessary. To wipe, clean and dry up. At the same time harmlessly to clean distributor contacts, for example, a small skin. Examine so-called "begunok". If on it or on a cover of the distributor will find a dark trace of electric breakdown, the detail should be changed.
In the most biassed way check the wires going from the distributor to candles. Wires and their tips should be dry and pure. If with them, in your opinion, everything is all right, it is possible to put a cover into place, to restore connections and to try to get the engine. If malfunction was concealed under a cover – the engine will be got or, at worst, at least will start to sneeze. A symptom too favorable – you on a right way. However, it is necessary to turn out, clean and dry candles – in attempts to get engine you filled in them with gasoline. If the engine does not sneeze at all, candles all the same should be turned out, cleaned and checked. It is simpler, if there is a spare set.
If you already reached a stage of a reversing of candles, it is possible to check quite effectively (and it is effective) all system of ignition as a whole. Having connected to the turned-out candles high-voltage wires, collect candles in a bunch as carrots, and wind directly by their carving part with a naked soft wire. Be convinced that the wire has contact to each candle, but does not concern the central electrodes. The free end of a wire connect to weight. Having arranged a bunch of candles in convenient for supervision from salon a place, twist the engine a starter. Thus between electrodes of candles in turn (according to an operating procedure of cylinders) should slip cheerful sparks. If it so, all system of ignition as it should be. The engine sound thus will be very unusual – be not frightened, after all it turns with the turned-out candles. Long do not twist. Worse if at the second stage of check other option takes place: sparks between the central wire and "case" are not present. Means, matter is not in high-voltage chains. Further searches will be more difficult, estimate the time and desire. If that and another available, start the third stage. Check, whether tension on the ignition coil moves. It is easy for making a tester and if it is not present, it is possible to use a podkapotny bulb. However, pair of wires is required to connect it to the coil. In classical system of ignition to connect a bulb it is necessary between weight and an entrance of primary winding.
At the third stage, as usual, two options too are possible: tension on the coil either moves, or is not present. If moves, the coil – breakdown or short short circuit is guilty that, however, happens extremely seldom. The coil should be changed. More often there is a bad contact in fastening of wires to the coil. Or the same wet dirt on which the spark flows away it is not known where. Sometimes the coil is polished to shine, but under it invisible very narrow strip of dirt – the quite good conductor remains.
If at the third stage you were convinced that tension on the coil does not move – electronics or contacts and unreliable connections in a low-voltage part of system of ignition is guilty. With electronics (the switchboard and, more rare, the sensor in the distributor case) you will not consult – their diagnostics needs special equipment. It is possible unless to pull the sensor socket on the distributor case – suddenly will help. If you have a car with classical contact system of ignition, it is possible to look for further.
Remove from the distributor a cover and examine breaker contacts – they can be oxidized, especially, if the car some time stood without movement. Contacts need to be cleaned carefully a thin skin or a special file.
Pull the cleaned contacts so that they that became isolated, were disconnected. On them only 12 volts, it is possible therefore to pull tension fearlessly. If cleaning did not help and tension on the coil, still, does not move, once again we advise for a while to finish attempts of reanimation of the car as difficulties further will begin.
If tension appeared (at a derganiye of contacts a bulb blinks), restore everything unscrewed and disassembled, get the car and, maybe, still will make progress in the affairs. If it is not got, but already at least sneezes – turn out candles and... (cm.выше).
If you have a car with injection (injector system of giving) fuels – do not touch it (to system). You can come to conclusion only that it broke: the spark is, fuel approaches – means, it, darling. Treatment only in a hospital. In house conditions and at handicraftsmen to repair it it is useless and even it is harmful.
In the ordinary carburetor engine the fuel system is simpler – a tank, a gasoline pump, a set of pipelines and the carburetor. Here it is possible поковыряться most. First of all it is necessary to be convinced that gasoline arrives in the carburetor. Disconnect a hose from the carburetor and press the lever of manual pumping of fuel. If quite powerful stream of gasoline – everything normally hammered, it is time to pass to the carburetor. Happens so that gasoline to the carburetor moves regularly, but in it for some reason does not arrive. If there is time and desire, remove the air filter then ask somebody to press an accelerator pedal sharply. Or can sharply pull for a rope of a drive of a butterfly valve. Thus look in the carburetor from above (the air zaslonka is open, differently will see nothing): if in the first diffuzor there was no gasoline stream – means, in the poplavkovy chamber it is not present. There is no it there because залипла a needle of the valve or (happens not so often) the fuel filter in the carburetor is completely hammered – it is located in front of the poplavkovy chamber. Or jets got littered. The filter is cleared by a purge, however at absence at you the necessary skills it is better not to contact at all carburetor interiors, to deal with jamming of the needle valve, a contamination of jets and other subtleties – let it experts do.
If the stream in a diffuzor is, pay attention to the starting arrangement of the carburetor – it quite often fails. On foreign cars beginning approximately from 70th years, automatic control of an air zaslonka is applied. The device without your participation depending on temperature of the engine closes or slightly opens a zaslonka it is how necessary, enriching a mix at engine start-up. If this automatic equipment works, it is possible to try manual manipulations with an air zaslonka, but there are a lot of options and there are no universal councils. Before the beginning of manipulations connect and fix disconnected earlier fuel hose. It is possible not to establish the air filter yet. If it will be got, let's to the engine get warm and good luck (previously having returned into place the air filter). . If at check of supply of fuel by a gasoline pump it will appear that gasoline from a hose does not go or a stream very thin, the reason should be looked for in the got littered pipelines, the filter of thin purification of fuel or the fuel tank – you can quite show the masterovitost, having pumped over a gasoline pipe line the tire pump in the direction, the return to gasoline movement, i.e. from the carburetor to a tank. In a tank booming, gurgling sounds should be audible.
With the filter of thin purification of fuel everything is simple. Though almost on all modern models it is executed in the transparent case, visually it is impossible to define degree of its impurity. The dirty filter will allow to get the engine, but will not allow to go normally. If it is hammered completely – the engine will not get. The most effective check: to remove the filter and if is not present new, temporarily to replace it with a suitable tubule, for example cases of a ball pen, it is better transparent – it is visible, as gasoline flows. Do not try to clean the filter – soldered (or stuck) the case does not understand.
If you came to a conclusion that the fuel pump does not work for your car, and spare near at hand is not present – "Take other car...".
Rare, but we left the most unpleasant diagnosis at last. If the starter works normally, you already spent a heap of time and were convinced that ignition and a food in a full order, and the car, nevertheless, is not got – it is necessary to examine a belt of a drive of a camshaft. However, solve, this check can be carried out and at the beginning, especially if the engine already passed more than 60 thousand. Complexity that it is necessary to remove or at least partially to unbend the top part of a plastic casing closing a belt. Probably, at a belt teeths – at belts as at people, teeth is lost from an old age were cut off. In this case the camshaft does not rotate and the engine will not work. It is clear that the toothless belt demands replacement (at whom the car with a chain drive of a cam-shaft, this trouble does not threaten). Procedure of replacement of a belt is not difficult, but is troublesome. It is carried out in a hospital. It is good, if everything is limited to replacement only a belt, instead of pognuty valves or all head of the block – such too happens.
If your accumulator is near death, try not гулшить the engine during innumerable stops in the city. Anything so does not force the battery, as frequent using a starter.
And the last (it concerns not only the accumulator, but also all electric equipment as a whole). Remember: all plugs, contacts, tips of wires should be dry and pure and it is good to adjoin to "destinations". Dirty, greasy isolation makes the way sooner or later, and the podgoraniye and oxidation of any contact surface can serve unique (and sufficient) as a cause of failure of system of ignition. Or fire.
On it it is possible to stop. Meticulous motorists, undoubtedly, paid attention to some superficiality of our councils. We admit, we intentionally do not wish to go deep into a jungle. Not to provoke you to self-treatment – it to good does not bring. The understanding of the nature of pains in the bottom of a stomach on the right does not mean that you should delete at yourselves an appendix. But to describe to the doctor appendicitis symptoms you should precisely. Very much helps treatment.