+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engines
+ 3.2. Diesel engines
+ 3.3. Removal and partition of engines
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Systems of start, ignition
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Suspension brackets, steering
+ 12. Body
+ 13. Electric equipment
- 14. Good advice
14.1.1. Changed numbers
14.1.2. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
14.2. Durability of the car
14.3. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.4. Preparation of the car for winter
14.5. It is not got – good advice
14.6. From change of places "composed" changes nothing?
14.7. Visit to car-care center
- 14.8. Engine
14.8.2. Analysis of a dymnost of an exhaust
14.8.3. "Eats" much, but silently goes
14.8.4. A gear belt for a drive of the mechanism of a gazoraspredeleniye
14.8.5. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
+ 14.8.8. Bearings
+ 14.8.9. To owners of the car with the diesel engine
14.8.10. To owners of the car with the injector engine
+ 14.9. Conditioner
+ 14.11. Rub in one – or how to save the catalyst
+ 14.12. Accumulator
14.15. "Machine gun"
+ 14.16. Brake system
+ 14.17. Wheels and tires
Injector motors surpass carburetor in many parameters, to take at least their profitability and problemless start in a frost. Nevertheless, carburetor under our conditions sometimes appear more advantageous. And even some automakers deliver on our market of the car with such engines. Everything put – as gasoline which sell at us.
The injector engine is calculated on high-grade gasoline which on our fillings you will find not often. Besides, different systems of injection have the specific features, they are necessary for considering at car operation. And in our market there is a lot of such systems: with mechanical injection "To (KE) - Jetronic", electromechanical "L-Jetronic" and electronic – "Motronic", "Lucas", "Marelli".
Many systems have two operating modes: the main and emergency – at malfunction of one of sensors. The driver can and not notice such malfunction: on the dashboard there is no alarm signal, and the engine continues to work (but any more in an optimum mode). Similar quite often it happens in "Audi-80" with the central injection. About a third of the motorists having such cars, do not guess at all that go in emergency operation. And it conducts to the increased fuel consumption, decrease in capacity, rough operation of the engine and the complicated start-up. Malfunction comes to light only during the next servicing. Therefore on the "weak" places of each system which are showing under our conditions, it is necessary to dwell.
Systems with mechanical injection. They more than others, are subject to physical wear. The regulator of pressure of fuel refuses usually through 80–120 thousand km of run (engine start considerably worsens), nozzles – through 60–80 thousand (rough operation of the motor, the increased fuel consumption). Refusal of nozzles is especially artful, as it not at once will notice. Diagnosing and repair need special equipment.
Sore point of systems with electromechanical injection – подсос air through the numerous vacuum hoses tending to cracking after 4–5 years of service. In particular on AMW and, in a little smaller degree, on "Audi". To reveal such defect quite difficult.
Electronic systems have problems. For example, the accumulator "sat down", and you on an old habit decided to "light" from other car. The electronic block as a result fails. And application of etilirovanny gasoline will be put, in turn, out of commission by a lambda probe and the catalyst.
As a whole, both mechanical, and electronic systems of injection have the pluses and minuses. At mechanical the thicket is refused by gasoline pumps and batchers distributors. At electronic the gasoline pump is more durable and is cheaper, but any malfunction of the computer will cost much. Besides, the reasons for failure of any system at us, alas, more than in Western Europe or America: poor-quality gasoline, dirt on roads and chemicals with which them strew. Therefore it is necessary to listen to recommendations of experts. Try to use import gasoline if there is such possibility; for moisture removal from топливопроводов at each filling fill in in a tank a special preparation; through each 10 000–15 000 km of run do complete washing of system of injection.
One more feature: any failure fixes the computer. And even after replacement of a faulty detail it will give out incorrect teams – until failure "will not erase" at the special stand.